Wednesday, July 30, 2014

Sue Weaver: Just Click It (Again!)

Author Sue Weaver rediscovers her love of clicker training — a system for teaching almost any animal, from your backyard cow to the family dog, that’s rewarding for both trainer and trainee. Learn how to clicker train your critters with Sue’s simple tutorial.


I love clicker training. So much so, in fact, that I wrote an Inside Storey piece called Just Click It! in January of 2010. As I’ve recently begun training a new group of goats and sheep, I thought it would be fun to show you how it’s done.



Briefly, clicker training is a gentle, reward-based system. The trainer uses a hand-held clicker to tell her pupil that he’s done well. The clicker signal is quickly followed by a small but tasty treat.  Training equipment is minimal and anyone with a basic understanding of how the system works can train any kind of animal to do just about anything. If you doubt it, take a look at Billy, a Soay lamb whose trainer uses milk as a reward.



Then watch Billy and his Border Collie friend performing together. It’s almost magic!


The goat I’m training in these pictures is Tak, a five-month-old ⅜ Lamancha and ⅝ Nubian wether. In his first training session ever, pictured here, he understood targeting within minutes and followed the target on a loose lead in less than five.




Ready to give it a try? All you need is a pupil (goat, sheep, horse, donkey, dog, rabbit, chicken, whatever), a clicker purchased at pet store or online, a target, tiny bits of your pupil’s favorite food for reward — my sheep and goats like animal crackers broken into thirds — and something easily accessible to contain it, such as a carpenter’s apron or a small fanny pack. Targets can be anything large enough to capture your pupil’s attention. I like a marine float on a piece of dowel rod for basic training but a large squeaky toy or even an empty plastic soda bottle will do. Later I teach my pupils to target on my hand.

Take your pupil to a quiet place away from obvious distractions. Click your clicker and hand him a tiny nugget of food. Repeat this for a minute or two until he associates a click with a yummy reward.

Next, hold the target where your pupil will accidentally bump it with his nose. The moment he does, click and reward. Don’t demand perfection at first. If his nose touches anyplace on the target, reward him. I’ve trained animals who understood in two or three clicks and others that need several sessions to get it right. Sessions should be short and sweet, five minutes tops.

Once he understands, refine the process. Hold the target up so he has to raise his head to touch it, then down near the ground so he has to lower his head. Once he follows the target, walk with him, rewarding him for following and touching it with his nose.


This is the basis of clicker training. Want him to lead quietly on a loose leash or lead? Hold the target out in front and let him follow it, occasionally slowing so he can touch it and earn a reward. How about stand with his front feet on a pedestal? Hold the target over the pedestal and reward him when he complies. I train my goats to do tricks, pack our camping gear, and pull a cart using clicker training. You can use it to teach a doe to hop up on the milking stand when you point at it or to pick up her feet. If you can think of something and break it into tiny steps that you can click and reward, you can teach it to your animal through clicker training.

Some people who aren’t in the know object to clicker training because they think clicker-trained animals only work for food. Not so. Once a pupil understands the process, click and reward sporadically so that your pupil works hard, wondering which action will earn the reward. It works!

I talk a lot about clicker training and how to use it to elicit specific behaviors in the Backyard series I wrote for Storey (The Backyard Goat, The Backyard Cow, and The Backyard Sheep). You can also find a world of useful information online. However you do it, check it out and try integrating clicker training into your interactions with your animal friends. My sheep and goats and I adore clicker training. Chances are, you will too.



All photos © Sue Weaver


Sue Weaver has written hundreds of magazine articles and many books about livestock, horses, and chickens, including The Backyard CowThe Backyard GoatThe Backyard SheepStorey’s Guide to Raising Miniature LivestockThe Donkey Companion, and Homegrown Pork. Weaver and her husband share their ridgetop farmette in the southern Ozarks with an array of animal friends. Visit Sue on her Facebook page. 

Monday, July 28, 2014

How to Grow a Pineapple from a Pineapple

Before Gwen Steege was our fiber arts editor, she edited garden books. Don’t Throw It, Grow it!, which describes how to take typically discarded seeds, pits, and roots from fruits and vegetables and grow them into unusual houseplants, was just one of her titles, and it’s followed her in an unexpected way. At the very least, it changed how she viewed the top of a store-bought pineapple few years back. Instead of tossing the spiky head of the fruit in the compost bin, she potted it up. 

Gwen’s pineapple plant, with fruit
That pineapple top grew into an impressive (if sharp) houseplant, but its pointy foliage didn’t make it the most welcoming specimen to keep on the home front. So, the plant arrived here at Storey where it sits on the floor of Gwen’s workspace, its highest leaves now just reaching the sill of a sunny window. Here it has flourished and — in recent months — surprised Gwen by finally fruiting! A pineapple that is now the size of a large orange sits perched in the center of the plant, elevated on a stalk and with a spiky cap of its own. The fruit flowered a couple of months ago with beautiful fuschia-colored blossoms, and now the only dilemma is knowing when it’s ripe enough to harvest!

Want to grow your own pineapple? Here are the instructions from Don’t Throw It, Grow it! Take note: Gwen’s approach was mostly hands-off — no rotted apples or plastic bags. That might be the reason the plant has taken six years to fruit instead of the three the book says it takes, but if you’re not in a hurry, these extra steps may not be required. Happy growing!

Gwen’s pineapple (the red shoots are remnants of the dried flowers)

Pineapple

Ananas comosus
BROMELIACEAE
Plant type: perennial
Growth rate: slow-growing
Method: in soil
Light: low light

What it looks like:
The smooth, or Hawaiian, pineapple has long leaves that are spineless. (It accounts for 75 percent of the crops raised.) The vigorous Queen Abakka variety has narrower spiny leaves and grows into a more exotic-looking plant than the Hawaiian type, but both provide striking foliage plants.

If you image the crown of a pineapple six times bigger than it is, you will have an idea of what a pineapple looks like growing in nature. Indoors, a pineapple plant will grow to at least half that size. Pineapple plants die after they flower and set fruit, but this takes several years in the home. They are propagated by off-shoots at the base of the crown.

How to grow it:
Look for a pineapple, either Hawaiian or Abakka, with fresh center leaves in the crown. If you have to keep a pineapple for a few days before using it, sprinkle the crown with water to keep the leaves fresh. Twist off the crown by holding the pineapple in one hand and the crown in the other. Then give a mighty twist; the crown will snap right off. Carefully peel off its lower leaves until you have an inch-long stump. Note the nubs that are in horizontal bands around the stump; these are the incipient roots.
Place the crown in a large glass or jar, fill with water to cover the base of the crown, and add a teaspoon of activated charcoal. The nubs will swell in a matter of days, and the roots will form within a month.

When the pineapple’s roots are 4 inches long, it is time to transplant it to a 6-inch pot. Place the pineapple in the sunniest spot in the house. Do not water until the topsoil is completely dry. The plant’s roots will rot with too much water.

When the pineapple is about three years old, it is ready to bloom. The following instructions sound like witchcraft, but they work. Place the plant, pot and all, in a black plastic bag. Place half of a rotted apple flesh-side down in the crown and place the other half flesh-side down on the soil. Seal the bag for two weeks and then open to see if you can notice the beginning of growth in the center of the crown. If not, reseal the bag and wait another two weeks. Once the new growth is visible, return the pineapple to a sunny spot. It will take almost six months for the flowers to develop, but it is worth the wait! The secret? The ethylene gas that the rotting apple gives off is a growth stimulant.

Text excerpted from Don’t Throw It, Grow it! © 2008 by Deborah Peterson and Millicent Selsam. All rights reserved.


Thursday, July 24, 2014

Nancy J. Ondra: Three Tips for Keeping Up with Garden Chores

Here in New England, flower gardens are thick with blooms, early tomatoes are starting to blush, greens are lush, garlic is nearly ready for harvesting, and oh, the berries! But how to keep up with it all when time is tight? Author and gardener Nancy J. Ondra has three simple methods for maximizing efficiency and enjoyment in summer garden maintenance.

Once the flurry and excitement of spring planting is past, it can be challenging to keep up with the less-than-thrilling parts of gardening: routine chores such as grooming your flower borders, harvesting veggies, and weeding everything. A couple of tricks can make it easier to get motivated, though, and possibly even turn tasks that you’d rather avoid into enjoyable excuses for “me time” in your garden.


Keep your tools close. If you have to go hunting through the garage or shed every time you need to get some gardening done, you’re wasting valuable outside time. Buy an inexpensive bucket, add your garden shears, gloves, and whatever tools you prefer for weeding, and keep your kit in a spot where you can grab it and go out to the garden whenever you have a few minutes to spare. Use the bucket to gather the weeds or trimmings, then dump them into your compost bin when you’re done. Replace the tools in the bucket, and put it back so everything’s right at hand for your next work session.

Flower garden maintenance is easier when you have your tools at the ready.
Photo © Nancy J. Ondra

If you grow a lot of veggies, consider making a separate kit for handy harvesting. A bucket can work well here too, but my favorite container for this is a Tubtrug Colander from Gardener’s Supply Company, because the slotted sides make it easy to wash and drain the collected veggies before you bring them into the kitchen. Add a digging knife or hand fork for loosening the soil for root crops, as well as clippers for fruiting crops and an old pair of fabric shears or kitchen scissors for easily gathering greens.

Harvest and wash your vegetables in one simple step with a garden colander.
Photo © Nancy J. Ondra

Make it an event. Instead of dreading garden tasks, turn the time into a treat. If you enjoy companionship, maybe you can lure a friend or neighbor over for a speed-weeding or harvesting session with a cup of coffee and the promise of juicy gossip. If your life tends to be noisy and hectic, use the quiet time to meditate while doing routine tasks, or just enjoy the peace. Or, load your iPod with your favorite music or an audiobook. You’ll be surprised how much work you can get done while you listen to a chapter or two, and you’ll look forward to getting back outside for the next one.

Before: the dreaded unweeded border
Photo © Nancy J. Ondra

Turn your back on your work. Gardeners tend to be very generous with plants and seeds, but their good advice can be even more valuable than tangible things. One of the most useful tricks in my maintenance arsenal came from an experienced gardener many years ago, when I was just getting started. Her advice was to “back into your work”: in other words, orient yourself so you are always looking at what you’ve already accomplished. Instead of looking down the whole length of a border that needs to be dug, mulched, or weeded (as shown above), turn your back on the unfinished part and enjoy the view of what you’ve already accomplished (as in the photo below). Keep backing up as you work, and before you know it, you’ll be done. It’s such a simple thing, but if you give it a try, I think you’ll find it as useful as I have!

After: Free of weeds
Photo © Nancy J. Ondra
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Nancy J. Ondra is a garden writer and editor who owned and operated a small rare-plant nursery for six years. She is the author or co-author of a dozen gardening books, including Five-Plant Gardens,  Foliage (winner of the 2008 Book Award from the American Horticultural Society), The Perennial Gardener’s Design Primer (winner of a 2006 Silver Award from the Garden Writers Association), The Perennial Care Manual, Fallscaping, and Grasses. She currently gardens in Bucks County, Pennsylvania, and blogs at hayefield.com.

Wednesday, July 23, 2014

Lisa Hiley: Behind the Scenes — A Photo Shoot from an Editor’s Perspective

The job of an editor goes beyond working with words. Storey editor Lisa Hiley reflects on an editor’s role when capturing a book’s content in images.

One of the more enjoyable parts of my generally fun job as a Storey editor is going on photo shoots. It’s nice to get out of the office and away from the computer, and as someone who focuses on words all day, I relish the chance to be involved in the visual side of bringing books to life. Since the author of the book is often on site for shoots, these occasions become a great chance to develop a relationship that sometimes only exists via email and phone. 

You never know what to expect on photo shoots. They can be exhausting, hectic, and frustrating. While everything is carefully planned in advance, everyone has to be flexible and willing to pitch in. Editors might find themselves chopping fruit, washing dishes, schlepping props, crouching beneath tables to keep them steady, holding lights overhead, smoothing out wrinkled clothing on models — you name it.

The horse stays in the picture: Editor Lisa Hiley (left) surveys photographer Jason Houston’s computer setup to make sure they have the shot they need. Consulting are co-author Stephanie Boyles and cover model Fino, with his owner Frances Carbonnel. Photo © Jason Houston Photography, LLC

In June of last year, I flew to Colorado for a shoot for 101 Western Dressage Exercises for Horse & Rider. We needed several specific shots including the all-important cover. Our authors, Jec Ballou and Stephanie Boyles, arranged for a couple of magnificent Andalusian horses to be our models and found a private ranch where we could shoot against gorgeous scenery. Our terrific photographer, Jason Houston, proved a quick study in capturing equine action.

My jobs on the shoot included showing up with coffee and breakfast at 6 a.m., keeping track of the shot list, making sure the riders had the right clothes for each shot, fetching lunch, looking at every set of shots with the authors to make sure we had what we needed, and shifting cones, ground poles, and other equipment as necessary. We had to work around a few glitches, including a very small paddock with excellent footing that proved a bit tight for our claustrophobic cover star (we moved some fence panels and tried another spot later in the day). I also happily talked about horses, watched horses in action, held horses, fed treats to horses, and mucked out a stall — just another day at work!

If only I’d been able to convince my boss to send me to New Mexico to work on the photo shoot for that new cookbook ….

The cover, featuring Fino, the Andalusian stallion

101 Western Dressage Exercises for Horse & Rider is available for order now!

Monday, July 21, 2014

Blues for All Seasons: Making and Using Dried Blueberries

With berry season upon us, we’re trying a few different ways to preserve and enjoy the freshness of the harvest beyond pies and jams. Last week, we made blueberry gastrique, a flavorful, versatile sauce. This week, we’re drying things out.

I’ll be honest: when it comes to blueberries, I’m an eat-’em-fresh or freeze-’em kind of girl. After all, we rarely get so many blueberries at once that they become a problem. That said, we have about a dozen or so varieties of blueberry bushes in our yard and, as they mature and yield more fruit, we are faced with the prospect of actually having some leftover to put up. We’re fortunate enough to have a chest freezer in our basement, but if you don’t have the space for an extra freezer (or simply don’t like the cost of keeping one running), and if you’d rather avoid the food panic that sets in with a power outage, dehydrating is your best friend.

Dried blueberries are good for more than just granola. Who doesn’t like blueberry muffins?
Teresa Marrone, author of The Beginner’s Guide to Making and Using Dried Foods, writes that, when it comes to successfully dehydrating small berries like blueberries, checking, or breaking, the skin of the fruit before drying is key. Without checking, berries like blues or huckleberries will swell and can take days to dry. But be forewarned: blueberries can’t just be blanched in boiling water like other fruit. “Because blueberries are so tender and small, the fruit cooks quickly during blanching, breaking apart or becoming too soft to spread on the dehydrator trays.”

Marrone suggests syrup-blanching your blueberries before drying, to check the skin and for a more pleasurable eating experience. “Fruits that have been syrup-blanched are softer and more brightly colored than those pretreated by other methods and are less likely to darken during storage....Brief syrup-blanching checks the fruit and also improves the taste and texture.”

How to Syrup-Blanch Blueberries: 
Combine 1 cup sugar, 1 cup corn syrup, and 2 cups water in a nonreactive saucepan (as an alternative to corn syrup, use a total of 1½ cups sugar and 2½ cups water). Heat to boiling, stirring until the sugar dissolves completely. Add the prepared fruit. Adjust the heat so the mixture simmers but does not boil. Large blueberries should be syrup-blanched by simmering (not boiling) for 3 minutes; small blueberries should be syrup-blanched for 2 minutes. (For high altitudes, add 30 seconds to the time specified for each 2,000 feet of elevation above sea level). Remove the fruit with a slotted spoon and drain; for less sticky dried fruit, rinse briefly in cold water and drain.

Dehydrate using a dehydrator or convection oven, the sun, or a conventional oven. 

[Note: Dehydrating times will vary, based on the method you use. More detailed information and tips for drying methods can be found in The Beginner’s Guide to Making and Using Dried Foods.]

Doneness test: Shrunken, dark, wrinkled, leathery to hard, with a dry texture. Syrup-blanched berries will be pliable and slightly sticky but no longer moist inside; they may be more flattened than berries that have not been syrup-blanched.

Yield: 1 pound fresh berries yields ¾ to 1 cup of dried berries, depending on the size of the berries. When rehydrated, 1 cup of dried berries yields 1⅓ to 1½ cups.

Of course, you can rehydrate your dried berries for pies and cobblers after the peak season is over, but, as Marrone writes, the dried fruit used just as they are pack a flavorful punch in granola or trail mix, and serve as an excellent stand-in for any recipe that calls for dried cranberries or raisins (a major perk for me, a raisin-hater). The blueberry flavor is unmistakable in these Lemon-Blueberry Yogurt Muffins, which bake up incredibly moist.

Lemon-Blueberry Yogurt Muffins

Makes 12 muffins

Ingredients:
1 cup dried blueberries
1 cup lemon yogurt
2 teaspoons lemon juice
2 cups all-purpose flour
1 teaspoon baking soda
1 teaspoon baking powder
½ cup sugar
4 tablespoons butter, melted and cooled slightly
2 tablespoons honey
½ teaspoon salt
2 eggs, lightly beaten

Directions:
  1. Preheat the oven to 375°F. Grease a 12-cup muffin tin, or line with paper liners.
  2. Stir together the dried blueberries, yogurt, and lemon juice in a large mixing bowl; set aside to rest for 15 minutes.
  3. Meanwhile, sift together the flour, baking soda, and baking powder into a medium mixing bowl; set aside.
  4. When the blueberry-yogurt mixture has rested for 15 minutes, add the sugar, butter, honey, salt, and eggs; stir well with a wooden spoon. Add the flour mixture and stir just until moistened; do not overmix or the muffins will be tough.
  5. Spoon the batter into the prepared muffin tin and bake for 15 to 20 minutes, or until golden brown. Cool on a wire rack for 15 minutes, and then turn the muffins out onto the rack to cool completely. 


Selected text, instructions for syrup-blanching, and Lemon-Blueberry Yogurt Muffins recipe excerpted from The Beginner’s Guide to Making and Using Dried Foods © 2014 by Teresa Marrone. All rights reserved.

Friday, July 18, 2014

Meet Mother Earth News 2014 Homesteaders of the Year: Glenn Maresca and Kelly McCormick

Every year, our friends at Mother Earth News honor individuals and families living sustainable lifestyles with a Homesteaders of the Year award. The award winners — gardeners and beekeepers, homebuilders and green energy innovators among them — have committed to living more simply and gently on the land, and their stories are unique and always inspirational. Storey is delighted to contribute a selection of books to all the award recipients.

Glenn Maresca and Kelly McCormick, who are among the winners for 2014, grow 80 percent of their food on their five-acre farm in Duette, Florida, where they also raise poultry, cows, and bees. Kelly generously sent along a little peek into their homesteading lives, and shares how The Backyard Homestead Guide to Raising Farm Animals has helped them to navigate unknown territory with confidence:

Glenn, with our first steer
We started reading The Backyard Homestead Guide to Raising Farm Animals when we first began our Florida homestead, and it has been invaluable as a source of information and inspiration. Our chickens have been using plastic storage crates for nests with great success due to the enhanced ventilation, which works well in our hot climate.

Our first honey!
The section on bees really helped us to position our hive and to choose the right way to get started. Without this book we would not have known to get heritage turkeys for easy breeding. Even as we moved into larger livestock, The Backyard Homestead Guide to Raising Farm Animals was a significant help in doing things like weaning our first two rescue calves.


After reading the section on choosing a dairy cow, we knew a Jersey was exactly what we were looking for. We’re counting on using the book to advise us on calving in the upcoming year.

Tending to Norman

Thank you so much for all the knowledge and books you’ve given us. We look forward to learning even more.

Norman, Glenn and Kelly’s steer

Congratulations, Glenn and Kelly, and thanks for sharing your story with us! We hope the books continue to serve you well in all your homesteading endeavors.

Thursday, July 17, 2014

Brooke Dojny: Beautiful Beets

Roasted, juiced, pickled, or sliced paper-thin and eaten raw, the colorful beet promises nutrients and flavor from green top to root bottom. Brooke Dojny previews a salad that pairs beets with peppery arugula from her forthcoming book, Chowderland, and shares a beet quick pickle how-to.

Red Ace. Bull’s Blood. Touchstone Gold. Early Wonder. Candy. Seed companies must have such fun naming vegetable and fruit seeds, and the adjectives and nouns for the many varieties of beets seem particularly descriptive. On a visit a few days ago to my CSA farm stand, beets of many colors — red, purple, yellow, striped — were bundled together and piled in a glorious heap, their shiny leaves still glistening with moisture. I bought four bunches.


Sometimes the labor involved in cooking and peeling beets can feel onerous, but I’ve learned to just add the cooking to a supper preparation. The whole cooked beets can then be refrigerated for up to three days, until you’re ready to use them. Wrapping beets in foil and roasting them for about an hour enhances and deepens their sweet flavor, but if you’re short on time, a simple steaming in an inch or so of salted water for about 20 minutes works beautifully, too. I view the beet cook’s red-stained fingers as a kind of badge of honor, but they’re easily scrubbed clean with a good stiff nail brush.

And the greens are pure bonus. Eminently edible, beet greens and are among the most intensely flavored, earthy, and pleasantly minerally of all cooking leaves. Chop the clean leaves and steam them or – even better – stir-fry the still-damp greens in a little olive oil with minced garlic until tender. Serve with a splash of vinegar.

Beets can, of course, be served warm, with butter and lemon or vinegar, but somehow I think their gorgeous color, their sturdiness, and earthy sweetness lends them especially well to sophisticated salad preparations. And simple, old-fashioned pickled beets are always welcome at a summer picnic.

Beet Salad on Arugula with Ricotta Salata 

This salad, which will be part of my new book Chowderland, to be published by Storey in 2015, calls for ricotta salata, which is fresh ricotta that has been pressed, salted, and aged. It’s somewhat similar to salty, nutty feta cheese and, in fact, the two can be used pretty much interchangeably.

4 servings

Ingredients:
1 pound trimmed beets (about 8 medium beets)
1 small garlic clove
½ teaspoon kosher salt
1½ tablespoons lemon juice
3 tablespoons extra-virgin olive oil
1/8 teaspoon freshly ground black pepper
3 ounces (3 handfuls) arugula or mesclun mix
4 ounces shaved or crumbled ricotta salata
About ½ cup imported green olives, pitted or not (your choice)

Directions:
  1. Cook the beets in boiling salted water to cover until tender, 20 to 30 minutes, depending on size, or wrap in foil and roast in a 350°F oven for 45 to 60 minutes. When cool, peel and cut into ½-inch dice.
  2. On a cutting board, coarsely chop the garlic with the salt, then use the flat blade of the knife to mash to a smooth purée. Combine in a bowl with the lemon juice, oil, and pepper, and whisk until smooth. Toss the beets with about 2 tablespoons of the dressing and refrigerate until ready to assemble the salad.
  3. Spread the arugula out onto a shallow rimmed platter and drizzle with the remaining dressing. Spread the dressed beets in the center and sprinkle with the cheese. Arrange olives over the top and serve. 


Quick Pickled Beets

Pickled beets are beautiful to look at, delicious to eat, and add a nicely piquant counterpoint to almost any summer meal.

4 servings

Ingredients:
1 pound trimmed beets (about 8 medium beets)
Salt for cooking
1 cup distilled white vinegar
⅓ cup sugar
1 tablespoon kosher salt
Pinch of allspice
½ cup sliced or diced onion

Directions:
  1. Cook the beets in boiling salted water to cover until tender, 20 to 30 minutes, depending on size. When cool, peel and cut into slices. 
  2. Bring the vinegar, sugar, salt, and allspice to a simmer in a saucepan, stirring to dissolve the sugar. Add the beets and onion and simmer for 1 minute. Cool and refrigerate for up to two weeks. 
Photos courtesy of the author.

Brooke Dojny is the author or co-author of more than a dozen cookbooks, including The New England Clam Shack Cookbook,Dishing Up® Maine, and Lobster! (all Storey Publishing). She won the James Beard Award in 1997 for The AMA Family Cookbook, co-authored with Melanie Barnard.  Brooke started her culinary career in the 1980s when she worked as a catering directress for Martha Stewart. From 1990 to 2004, Brooke co-authored (with Melanie Barnard) Bon Appetit’s monthly “Every-Night Cooking” column. She has written for most of the other major culinary magazines and has been a regular contributor to Down East Magazine. She lives on the coast of Maine, where she can be found hanging out at clam shacks and farmers’ markets. Her next book for Storey is Chowderland, to be published in 2015.

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